PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG WOMAN IN NEBRASKA CITY, NEBRASKA (PHOTOGRAPHER KNOWN FOR IMAGES OF NATIVE AMERICANS)

A young woman poses for her portrait at the Tolman studio in Nebraska City, Nebraska. She is likely in her teenage years. She is wearing a wide black band around her neck. Is the band jewelry? Is it part of her dress? Does the black collar band represent something (ie mourning)? I hope some of the visitors to the Cabinet Card Gallery will express their opinion about the band. The photographer of this image is Thomas W. Tolman. One source states that he was from Fort Dodge, Iowa and that he is listed in the 1882 Glenwood (Iowa) business directory (1882) as a photographer. Later, he was listed in the 1890 Nebraska City business directory. An article in the Gillette News Record (Wyoming) presents some interesting information about Mr. Tolman. He was hired by Collier’s Magazine to document a group of White River Utes migration from the Uintah reservation in Utah. They were heading north and their trip took them through Gillette. They were leaving the reservation because of a federal mandate that reclaimed some of the land on the reservation for homesteading and mining. A group of about 400 men, women, and children started the journey in 1906. Their destination was unclear. It was thought they may have been heading to Montana, or South Dakota. When they arrived near Gillette, they camped about 50 miles north of the city. This was the locale where they were photographed by Tolman. Along their travels, there were rumors of violence attributed to the this group of Native Americans. These rumors were unfounded. The New York Times condemned the journalists who reported the “fake news” about this group of Utes. Unfortunately, the complaints came from citizens who wanted the group rounded up and the US Cavalry was called to intercept them. Tolman photographed the group of Utes, both before and after the arrival of the US troops. A compromise was made and the migrating Native Americans agreed to go to Fort Meade, South Dakota with the cavalry escort. In exchange, the Utes were promised an opportunity to go to Washington D.C. to express their feelings about the Government’s “land grab”. In fact, Ute leaders did go to the nation’s capital where they met with President Theodore Roosevelt and hi head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The US did not change it’s policies. The Utes stayed at Fort Meade for about six months and than leased land from the Sioux for about a year. In 1908, the group returned to their reservation in Utah. The photos appeared in Collier’s Magazine. The article was headlined “The Unquiet Ute”. An example of one of the photographs in the series can be found below. It is not included in the sale of this cabinet card. It is impressive that Tolman was able to take well regarded photos without the comfort and resources of his studio. This cabinet card portrait is in very good condition (see scans).

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A PHOTOGRAPH BY TOLMAN FROM “THE UNQUIET UTE COLLECTION”
Published in: on October 14, 2020 at 12:20 pm  Comments (1)  
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PORTRAIT OF FOUR KIOWAH NATIVE AMERICANS ON HORSEBACK : FOURSOME INCLUDES CHIEF QUALUPAH AND CHIEF HUNTING HORSE

This vintage real photo postcard features a portrait of four Native Americans on horseback. The foursome are members of the Kiowah tribe. Among the group are Chief Qualupah and Chief Hunting Horse.The other two riders appear to be women. The four are dressed in Native American clothing. They are in a field which has lines of rope holding American flags.  Perhaps they are  invited guest to an Amrican patriotic holiday celebration. Researching Chief Qualupah was an exercise in frustration. I learned nothing about him. There were chiefs mentioned that had names close to “Qualupah”,  leading me to believe that there are several different spellings of his name. Information about Chief Hunting Horse was plentiful. He was a well known scout during the Custer, Sheridan, and Sherman era. In 1871 he enlisted for a two year stint in the Seventh Cavalry commanded by Gerneral Custer. By the end of his legendary scouting career, his friends included Theodore Roosevelt and Geronimo. He was born in Medicine Lodge Kansas in 1846. He was the son of a Kiowa war chief and a Spanish woman who had been kidnapped in Mexico and raised by the Kiowas. Hunting horse came to “Indian Territory” (Oklahoma) at the age of fifteen. In 1917 he appeared in the silent Western film, “Daughter of the Dawn”. In the early 1900’s relatives began celebrating his birthday. These celebrations occurred every year until his death. Military and political figure were often among the attendees. Chief Hunting Horse died at the age of 107 and his funeral included full military honors. Who are the Kiowa? They were considered a nomadic tribe of the plains. It is thought that they originated in the northern basin of the Missouri River but migrated to the Black Hills around 1650. They lived peacefully there with the Crow Indians until they were invaded by the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux; resulting in the Kiowas moving further south. There they fought with the Comanche, but with the help of the Spanish, the two tribes formed an alliance and agreed to share their land. Joined by the Plains Apache, they hunted, traveled and fought war together.They raided settlements in Texas and New Mexico. They stole horses and mules which they used to trade with the Plains Indian tribes. In 1867, the Kiowa signed a treaty and agreed to settle on a reservation in Oklahoma. In 1901 their lands were open for settlement by whites and dissolving the contiguous reservation. Today, there are more than 12,000 Kiowa tribe members in Oklahoma and throughout the Southwest. The photograph taken for this postcard was taken by the Electric Studio. The postcard has an AZO stamp box indicating that the postcard dates back to sometime between 1910 and 1930. This postcard is in very good condition (see scans).

 

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SEMINOLE INDIAN : PORTRAIT OF A NATIVE AMERICAN YOUNG MOTHER AND CHILD IN FLORIDA

This vintage real photo postcard is striking. The photograph features a young Native American mother and her small child. The mother and her baby are members of Florida’s Seminole tribe. The mother appears quite young. My guess is that she is about sixteen years-old. She is pretty and her child is adorable. Who are the Seminole? They are a tribe that originally lived in Florida. In present times, the majority of the Seminoles live in Oklahoma. The EKC stamp box on the reverse of this photo postcard indicates it was published sometime between 1930 and 1950. The postcard is in good condition. There is a tiny pinhole located at the center bottom of the card. It is undetectable in the scans. It is only apparent if the postcard is held up to a bright light. (see scans).

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$39.53

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PORTRAIT OF A LITTLE BOY WEARING AN IMPRESSIVE NATIVE AMERICAN COSTUME

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This vintage real photo postcard features an adorable little boy wearing a beautiful Native American costume. Note his feathered headdress. It is likely that this child was photographed in France and is dressed for the Carnival. This private studio postcard is in excellent condition (see scans). Addendum: A visitor pointed out to me that this postcard is not of French origin (see his comment below). The postcard is actually English.

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$27.50

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Published in: on January 3, 2019 at 12:00 pm  Comments (3)  
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TWO WOMEN DRESSED AS NATIVE AMERICANS IN HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT

This vintage photograph features two women dressed as Native Americans. One wonders what occasion caused these ladies to dress in this fashion. Perhaps they are actresses in costume for a theatrical production? Note the women’s beads, Indian blanket, and single feathers atop their heads. Also notice that one of the woman is holding a knife. This photograph was taken by the Taylor Studio in Hartford, Connecticut. Credit for who took this photograph is a bit confusing. First of all, the city of Hartford is crossed out under the studio’s logo. Further complicating identification of the photographer is the fact that beneath the Taylor logo is the embossed signature of another studio (I can’t decipher the studio’s name). This second studio is located in New Britain, Connecticut. It appears to me that the Taylor Studio used the New Britain studio’s card stock rather than invest in new card stock. Research was able to find a photograph of the Taylor Studio. It may be seen on the postcard below. Focus on the banner sign hanging on the fourth floor on the building seen on the far left side of the postcard. The banner is located next to the fourth floor window and reads “Taylor Photo Studio”.  SOLD

Published in: on December 1, 2017 at 12:00 pm  Comments (1)  
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PORTRAIT OF A BEAUTIFUL MOTHER AND DAUGHTER IN BEMIDJI, MINNESOTA (BY FAMOUS PHOTOGRAPHER ROLAND REED)

 

This vintage photograph features a smartly dressed pretty woman with her adorable young daughter. The little girl’s expression is absolutely priceless. The photograph was taken by the Reed studio in Bemidji, Minnesota. Bemidji is a Ojibwe (Chippewa) word that means “a lake with crossing waters”. The town was chartered and organized in 1896. The town has been called the “curling capital” of the United States. An inscription on the reverse of the photograph has the name “Mary Keining”. This is probably the name of the mother in this portrait. The photographer of this photograph was a well known American artist and photographer named Roland (Royal Jr.) W. Reed (1864-1934). He was part of an early 20th century group of photographers of Native Americans known as pictorialists. The pictorialist movement was influenced by the 19th century art movement of Impressionism. The pictorialists emphasized lighting and focus. They tried to recreate images as they may have been rather than as it was. A group of pictorialists took photographs of Native Americans and Native American life as it was before the damage wrought on the culture by reservations. Roland Reed was born in Wisconsin. He grew up with a strong caring interest in Native Americans and a desire for adventure. His first job when he left home was working in a Minnesota sawmill. In 1885 he worked for the Canadian Pacific Railroad and became familiar with the Plains Indians. He soon returned to Minnesota and used it as a home base for five years of exploration and adventure which included traveling to Tennessee, Arkansas, New Mexico, and finally Montana in 1890. He worked for the Great Northern Railway and utilized his artistic talent doing portrait sketches of Piegan and Blackfeet Indians as well doing landscape sketches and paintings. In 1893 he apprenticed with photographer Daniel Dutro in Havre, Montana. The pair eventually became partners in a studio and they also sold Native American photographs to the Great Northern Railway. For a short duration in 1897, Reed worked for the Associated Press in Alaska photographing the Klondike Gold Rush. He returned to Havre but in 1899 he opened a photo studio in Ortonville, Minnesota. He quickly developed a reputation for being an outstanding photographer of local landscapes and children. His business grew and he opened another studio in Bemidji. He frequently would leave his Bemidji studio to go photograph the Ojibwe Indians on nearby reservation. In 1907, he sold both of his studios and went to live near the Ojibwe Red Lake Reservation so he could focus on his work documenting Native Americans. He pursued this interest full time for two years. In 1909, Reed returned to Montana and opened a studio in Kalispell (the town near the western entrance of today’s Glacier National Park. He operated the studio there and also sold copies of his Native American photographs and Native American arts and crafts. While in Kalispell he spent six years on a major project of ph0tographing the Plains Indians, including the Blackfeet, Piegan, Boood, Flathead and Cheyenne. While in Montana he became part of the state’s community of artists. Included was western artist Charlie Russell. In 1913, Reed spent several months photographing the Navajo and Hopi in Arizona. That same year, Reed opened a branch of his photography studio in San Diego, California. After just a few years, he retired to Ortonville, Minnesota.  It didn’t take too long for wanderlust to set in. In 1916 he built a cabin near Cable, Wisconsin where he spent half his time between there and Ortonville. In 1920 he relocated to Denver, Colorado, where he opened a new studio and remained in business for seven years. In 1930 he retired again, this time to San Diego. During this time he worked on a book of his photographs titled “Reed’s Photographic Art Studies of the North American Indian”. While visiting Colorado Springs in 1934 he was killed in an accident. Reed’s work photographing Native Americans were funded by himself. He had little interest in having his photography utilized for advertising. He is known to have turned down an offer of fifteen thousand dollars for 200 negatives in order to ensure they would not be used commercially. In 1950, National Geographic Magazine licensed the rights to approximately forty of his photographs. A portrait of Roland Reed can be seen directly below. (SOLD)

FOUR VICTORIOUS YOUNG MEN ON THE FOURTH OF JULY 1900 (VINTAGE PHOTOGRAPH)

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This vintage photograph captures four young men posing in their dress-up clothing and patriotic straw hats. An inscription on the reverse of the image states that the men were photographed on July fourth, 1900. The men are wearing prize ribbons on their lapels. They apparently won a contest of some sort. Its interesting to note that the two men in the front row are balancing luggage bags on their knees. The bags almost look like doctor bags. This photograph was taken by J. L. Blessing of Salamanca, New York. Blessing was no amateur as is apparent in his  1908 photograph of a Native American woman seen below. She is from the Seneca tribe and her name is Ah-Weh-Eyu (translation: Pretty Flower). Her English name was Goldie Jamison Conklin and she was from the Allegany Reservation in Western New York. She was born in Salamanca in 1892 and died in 1974. She was quite beautiful and worked as a model for the Cattarugus Cutlery Company of Little Valley, New York. She helped advertise the company’s line of “Indian Brand” knives. She was often photographed by Jesse Lynn Blessing who operated the Blessing Studio in Salamanca. His father was J. H. Blessing (1851-1920) who started the studio. According to an entry on geneology.com by J. L. Blessing’s grandaughter, Mr Blessing “was asked to work with Disney Studios by Walt Disney but decided to take over his father’s studio instead”.  (SOLD)

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COWBOY WEARING CHAPS AND HOLDING A PISTOL IN PORTLAND, OREGON (REAL PHOTO POSTCARD)

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This vintage real photo postcard features a cowboy wearing frilly chaps, a holster, a bandana  and a cowboy hat. In one hand he is holding a pistol and in the other he has a pair of gloves decorated with a five point star. The cowpoke in this studio image appears ready to head out on the next cattle drive. The cowboy in this photograph has an ethnic appearance. Perhaps he was Hispanic or Native American. This photograph was taken at the Mazeograph Studio in Portland, Oregon. Charles E. (Cal) Calvert operated his studio between 1906 and 1930. As the advertisement on the reverse of the postcard attests, Calvert’s specialty was creating fast postcards. Studio backdrops and set-ups awaited customers, so they simply had to place themselves in the scene. This arrangement coupled with quick development techniques, allowed subjects to be able to procure a postcard image of themselves in less than ten minutes. The postcard itself was made by Cyko and the stamp box indicates that it was produced between 1904 and the 1920’s.

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Published in: on August 11, 2015 at 12:02 pm  Leave a Comment  
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FEMALE NATIVE AMERICAN STUDENT AT THE CARLISLE INDIAN SCHOOL IN CARLISLE, PENNSYLVANIA

native amer woman_0008The reverse of this photograph has an inscription and is signed by the subject. The young woman in this image is Amy Dalphus and the inscription states “to sister “Phillips” from sister “Beaver” Remember the day this was taken”. Miss Dalphus is well dressed and attractive in her coat, hat, and leather gloves. The photographer of this image was Hertsler whose studio was located in Carlisle. Research reveals that Amy E. Dalphus was from the Sioux tribe in South Dakota. She graduated from the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in 1903. She is cited in the book “A Biobibliography of Native American Writers, 1772-1924: A Supplement”by Littlefield and Parins (1985). Next to her name is the following: “Red Man and Helper, February 20-27, 1903”. Perhaps she wrote an article for this magazine or maybe her graduation is listed in the magazine’s pages. Research found little information about Miss Dalphus. Her name was listed on a number of annual “Indian Census” reports from the turn of the century. The “Indian Census” of 1896 reported her to be living in South Dakota with her step mother (Mrs. Moore)  and three brothers and a sister. She lived under the auspices of the “Cheyenne River Agency”. The 1900 US census found her living in Carlisle as a student.The story of the Carlisle Indian school is an example of well meaning people committing terrible deeds in an effort to help others. It is important to realize that not everyone involved in this school, and others like it, were actually well intentioned. The Carlisle school operated from 1879 through 1918 as a boarding school founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt. The school was part of the effort of the US government to assimilate children from 39 tribes into the majority culture. This was an effort to “civilize the Indian”. Pratt saw his task as similar to his experience with the “domestication of wild turkeys”. He believed his mission was the “annihilation of the Indian and his salvation as an American Citizen”. Pratt’s goal was to “kill the Indian in him, and save the man”. Many children were subject to this assimilation project. During some years, the school had as many as a thousand students a year. In addition, there were other schools engaged in the same endeavor. The students were forced to take English names to replace their given tribal names. This was very difficult for the students to accept because their tribal names had personal meanings that reflected their experiences or relationships. In the inscription on the reverse of this photograph, Amy Dalphus refers to herself as “Beaver” alongside her English name. Perhaps this is an effort by her to not surrender her tribal name. The Carlisle school became well known for its athletic programs. Coach Pop Warner and the talented athlete, Jim Thorpe, received national attention. More people are aware of Carlisle’s sports prowess than the actual abuse and racism that permeated the concept and operation of the school.

THREE NATIVE AMERICAN SIBLINGS IN EL RENO, OKLAHOMA TERRITORY (PHOTOGRAPHED BY STOTZ)

This cabinet card is chock full of history. The photograph features three young Native Americans posing for their portrait at the studio of Christopher Charles Stotz (1851-1932), in El Reno, Oklahoma Territory. The subjects of this image are likely siblings. The young women are wearing identical dresses and are adorned with rings and beautiful earrings. The specific Indian tribe that these three young people represent, is unknown. Oklahoma was the home of many Indian Tribes including Pawnee, Creek, Apache, Arapaho, Choctaw, and others. Many tribes were relocated there from other states. As mentioned earlier, the photographer of this cabinet card is C. C. Stotz and his studio was located in El Reno, Oklahoma Territory. Oklahoma became a state in 1907 which means that this photograph was taken before that year. El Reno is located in central Oklahoma, about 25 miles from Oklahoma City. Fort Reno was built in 1874 and it’s first commander was Civil War hero, General Philip Sheridan. Sheridan named the fort after his friend, General Jesse L. Reno, who was killed in the Civil War. The fort was near the Cheyenne-Arapaho reservation. One of the fort’s missions was to “protect” the “Five Civilized Tribes”. This group was comprised of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes. Employing the term “civilized tribe” was evidence of the special prejudice held against the tribes not among the designated five civilized tribes. Tribes described as civilized were tribes that had adopted many of the customs and values that were held by  European-Americans at the time.  Who was C. C. Stotz?  Stotz was born in Columbia, Pennsylvania.  He  established a studio in El Reno in 1889; the same year El Reno was founded. Therefore, this photograph was taken between 1889  (El Reno founded) and 1907 (Oklahoma statehood). During the 1880’s and 1890’s, he made field and studio photographs of Southern Plains Indians. Stotz is an acclaimed early photographer  of Native American’s and Native American life.